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Ianastasija Omoore
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Stacker 2 With Ephedrine Buy


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Stacker 2 With Ephedrine Buy


Stacker 2, , Black Jax, Capsules, 20 capsulesHerbal Dietary Supplement. Good luck energy! (This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.)Supplement FactsServing Size 1 capsule Servings Per Container 20Amount Per Serving% Daily ValueProprietary Blend170 mg Caffeine (Anhydrous)250 mg Ingredients:Other Ingredients: Dextrose, Gelatin, Di Basic Calcium Phosphate, Stearic Acid, Magnesium Stearate, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Blue No. 1. Proprietary Blend: Yohimbine Alkaloids (Pausinystalia Yohimbe Bark), Yerba Mate (Fruit), Guarana (Seeds), Kola Nut (Seeds) (3 mg Caffeine Group Alkaloids), Capsaicin (Fruit).*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.Directions:Suggested Use: One capsule after meals. Do not exceed 3 daily.Warnings:Sale to persons 17 years of age or younger is prohibited. Important: Read instructions before use. Not for use by individuals under the age of 18 years. Do not use if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult a physician or licensed qualified health care professional before using this product if you have, are at risk for, or have a family history of stroke, heart disease, thyroid disease, liver disease, kidney disease, ulcer, diabetes, high blood pressure, caffeine sensitivity, recurrent headaches, anxiety, depression or other psychiatric condition, glaucoma, difficulty urinating, prostate enlargement, seizure disorder, or if you are using any other dietary supplement, or a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), prescription drug or over-the-counter drug containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine (found in some allergy, asthma, and cough/cold products). Do not exceed recommended serving. Individuals who exceed the recommended serving or consume caffeine with this product may experience serious adverse health effects


In the United States, the active components of ephedra, known as the ephedrine alkaloids (ephedrine; pseudoephedrine; norephedrine, also known as phenylpropanolamine; and norpseudoephedrine) are commonly found in over-the-counter cold and allergy medications. The ephedrine alkaloids are stimulants (similar to, but much weaker than, amphetamines) that can increase heart rate and blood pressure and relax bronchial tissue, easing shortness of breath. At low doses, they are reputed to decrease appetite, increase alertness and productivity, improve mood, and decrease fatigue; at higher doses, they may promote anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia.


The use of ephedra to promote weight loss and enhance athletic performance began to gain popularity in the United States in the early 1990s. The increase in popularity of herbal products and over-the-counter medications that seem to promote weight loss is probably attributable to a combination of factors, including the recent precipitous rise in overweight and obesity rates, news stories suggesting that prescription diet drugs may be dangerous, the reluctance of many overweight people to talk with their doctors about weight control, and the growing belief on the part of many people that natural substances such as herbs (and those perceived as natural) are safer than mainstream medicines.


People have used dietary supplements to enhance athletic performance for many years. Use of dietary supplements and over-the-counter medications containing stimulants like ephedrine to enhance athletic performance increased throughout the latter part of the 20th century, perhaps in part because of the bans imposed on use of amphetamines and because of the accelerating intensity of competitive sports.


Our assessment of the evidence was guided by a distinguished panel of technical experts, both basic scientists and clinicians. This group included cardiologists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, and toxicologists, as well as specialists in obesity, nutrition, and the science of pharmacognosy. The technical expert panel recommended that we also review studies of over-the-counter medications that contain the chemical ephedrine, presumed to be the primary active ingredient of ephedra (ephedrine-containing products are regulated as pharmaceuticals, not as dietary supplements). In addition, many ephedracontaining supplements also include herbs that contain caffeine, and products that contain ephedrine often include caffeine. Because caffeine is believed to have effects that are similar to ephedrine, such combinations could potentially be more powerful than either substance alone. Thus, we were also asked to review the evidence for the effectiveness and safety of supplements that combine ephedra and caffeine as well as ephedrine and caffeine-containing products.


To assess the evidence for the effectiveness of ephedra and ephedrine in weight loss and athletic performance, we performed an exhaustive search and review of the medical research "literature" using the well-accepted procedures of evidence-based medicine. The literature review was conducted by our staff with the assistance of several clinical experts.


Studies of weight loss usually measure the weight lost over the course of the study, the weight lost per month, or the proportion of an individual's original weight that was lost. For each group of studies that made the same comparisons (for example, all studies that compared the effects of ephedra and herbal caffeine on weight loss with the effects of a placebo), we combined the results of all studies in that group, using a statistical technique called meta-analysis, and calculated the average total weight lost as well as the average lost per month.


Over the short term (four to six months), ephedrine, ephedrine plus caffeine, and supplements containing ephedra or ephedra plus caffeine promoted modest increases in weight loss, about two pounds per month more than the weight loss of persons taking the placebo. Products containing caffeine seemed to promote slightly more weight loss than those containing only ephedrine. However, none of the studies lasted longer than six months, far less than the twelve months researchers consider the minimum necessary to establish the value of a weight loss product (studies that lasted less than two months were excluded from our analysis because two months is simply too short a time to assess a meaningful change in weight).


We found no studies that assessed the effects of ephedra-containing dietary supplements on athletic performance. Thus we analyzed only studies of products containing ephedrine or ephedrine plus caffeine, seven studies in all. No two studies were judged similar enough in design to combine their results: Measures of athletic performance varied widely from one study to another. As a result, our conclusions regarding the effects of ephedrine on athletic performance are based on a nonquantitative synthesis of the research rather than on meta-analysis. In addition, no study looked at long-term changes in performance.


Our analysis found that one-time use of ephedrinecontaining products seems to enhance immediate physical performance, but only when taken in combination with caffeine. These results, too, must be interpreted with caution. The studies assessed performance immediately after a single dose; none of the studies examined the type of chronic, long-term use typical of consumers of these products.What's more, the study participants,all young, fit males,may not be typical of the average consumer.


We also reviewed descriptions of medical cases published in peer-reviewed journals. This review identified 70 reports of adverse events, including heart attacks, strokes, and serious psychiatric problems.We then obtained all adverse-event reports submitted to the FDA prior to September 2001 that were associated with the use of ephedraor ephedrine-containing products and for which records existed: more than 1,500 adverse-event reports on ephedra and 125 on products containing ephedrine. Finally, we analyzed more than 18,000 adverse-event reports received by one of the largest U.S. manufacturers of ephedra-containing dietary supplements. These reports had been turned over to the FDA at the request of the U.S. Deptartment of Justice. Based on the available evidence, these reports were classified as "sentinel events," "possible sentinel events," or lacking in sufficient evidence (see Table 1).


The majority of the adverse-event reports lacked sufficient information to demonstrate a connection between the event and use of ephedra or ephedrine. Nevertheless, we did identify a number of reports of sentinel and possible sentinel events, including death, stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack), ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, cardiac arrest, pulmonary arrest, transient ischemic attack, brain hemorrhage, seizure, psychiatric symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms (see Table 2). Of particular concern is that half the sentinel events occurred in apparently healthy people under the age of 30.


The studies we reviewed suggest that ephedra- and ephedrine-containing products may be modestly effective in promoting weight loss, but the evidence on enhancing athletic performance is not definitive. However, the use of ephedra or ephedrine does cause an increase in jitteriness, mood changes, palpitations, nausea, and vomiting. Moreover, the adverse-event reports raise serious concerns about the safety of ephedra and ephedrine products.


In response to our report, the federal government quickly moved to propose stricter labeling of ephedra products and solicited public comment on whether the safety evidence thus far warrants further restrictions. By itself, the existing evidence is insufficient to link these products conclusively with death and other serious health problems. However, our analysis of the existing studies and their shortcomings suggests that a more definitive answer to questions about ephedra's safety could be obtained by doing what is called a "case-control" study. 59ce067264






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