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Mental Ability Books In Kannada


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Mental Ability Books In Kannada


Everyone is at some risk of developing a mental health disorder, regardless of age, sex, income, or ethnicity. In the U.S. and much of the developed world, mental disorders are one of the leading causes of disability.


According to the WHO peak mental health is more than just the absence of mental health problems. It is the ability to manage existing conditions and stressors while maintaining ongoing wellness and happiness.


Current estimates suggest that between 1 and 3 percent of people living in the United States will receive a diagnosis of mental retardation. This report assesses the process used by the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) to identify individuals with cognitive limitations who experience significant problems in their ability to perform work and may therefore be in need of governmental support. It evaluates the existing disability determination process in the context of current scientific knowledge and clinical practice. Mental retardation, a condition characterized by deficits in intellectual capabilities and adaptive behavior, can be particularly difficult to diagnose in the mild range of the disability.


SSA administers two disability programs that provide income and medical benefits to individuals who are either unable to work or to function as expected given their age because of disability. The Disability Insurance (DI) program, which operates under Title II of the Social Security Act, provides monetary payments to formerly employed individuals who have contributed to the Social Security trust fund through Social Security tax on earnings. Certain classes of dependents of insured individuals are also eligible for DI benefits. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, which operates under Title XVI of the Social Security Act, provides payments to individuals (including children younger than 18 years of age) with a disability who have limited income and other resources. Such a person does not have to have been employed or a contributor to Social Security to be eligible for SSI benefits, although a means test is applied to both income and assets.


Satisfaction of any one of these four criteria in an individual who has mental retardation meets the step 3 criterion of SSA's determination process; i.e., that the individual has a prima facie case of disability that results in an inability to work.


Medical criteria for evaluating children with mental retardation are described in Listing 112.05. Like the definition for adults, mental retardation in children for SSA disability purposes is characterized by significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, with deficits in adaptive functioning. The Listing, again in paraphrase, includes six criteria for assessing severity of the condition:


Subsequent to the adoption of this definition, the field disagreed over whether mental retardation was a constitutional condition or one based on deficits in social competence (Biasini et al., 1999). Edgar Doll, for instance, proposed that mental retardation was a condition of genetic origin that resulted in social incompetence and arrested development (Doll, 1936a). He believed the condition was incurable. In contrast, Kuhlman (1920) proposed that the condition resulted from a subnormal rate of development, suggesting that it was a result of social functioning deficits rather than genetic conditions. Despite these differences in definition, however, they all focused on the inability to perform common behaviors, delays in social development, and low intelligence (Yepsen, 1941).


It is important to note that the differences between the SSA definition of mental retardation and those of the major professional and health-related organizations derive from the purpose for which it is used. The SSA definition is used not for diagnostic purposes, but rather for purposes of program eligibility. The SSA definition fulfills its purpose of identifying individuals with cognitive limitatio




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